Respons tanaman kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) terhadap cekaman kekeringan Respons of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) to water stress

Nurita TORUAN-MATHIUS, Gede WIJANA, Edi GUHARJA, Hajrial ASWIDINNOOR, Sudirman YAHYA, . SUBRONTO

Abstract


Summary
Water stress affect many physiological and
biochemical processes of oil palm. A series of
experiments were conducted to characterize the
water stress-induced changes in physiological
respons of oil palm to water stress, in glass house
condition. The experiment consisted of (1)
permanent leaf wilting point measured based on
soil water content, leaf water content, specific
leaf area and leaf water potential . Plants were
conducted by termination of watering to the
plants, and control plants were maintained well
watered during 0,3,6,9,12,15,18 and 21 days of
MK356 and MK365 clones. Experiment (2)
effect of water stress on changes of leaf water
potential, protein bands pattern, proline,
glycine-betaine, osmotical sugar, and abcisic
acid (ABA) of MK356 and MK365 clones.
Water stress was induced by termination of
watering to the plants and maintained well
watered during 0, 7,14, and 18 days.
Experiment (3) changes of protein bands pattern
by total protein and electrophoresis SDS-PAGE
and SDS-PAGE 2D protein. of H2
(D10DxD8D)x(L9TxL2T); H12 (D8D Self) x
(L9T x L2T). H3 and H9 (BJ028D x BJ2117P)
hybrids. H2 and H12, H3 and H9 potentially
tolerant and untolerant to water stress,
respectively. The results showed that permanent
wilting point reached in 18 days of water stress.
Water stress caused the decreased soil water
content, leaf water potential, leaf water content,
relative leaf water content , and relative leaf
area of two clones. Water potential, leaf wate
content dan relative leaf water content of
MK365 decrease faster compare with MK356.
Soil water content sharply decrease after 6 hours
and in 18 days of water stress leaf water
potential value < - 2.55 Mpa. Proline, glycine-
betaine and glucose content were affect by water
stress. Interaction among water stress and clones
were significantly appear in stachiose content.
Leaf water potential values decrease, whereas
proline, ABA and glycine-betaine contents
increase during water stress especially in
MK356. Generally showed that ABA content in
MK356 higher than MK 365. The differences
responses of MK356 with MK 365 obtained from
prolin,xylose and ABA content. Induction of new
protein pI 4.7-36 kDa, pI5.3-34 kDa, pI 4.6-32
kDa and pI 5.3-36 kDa obtained from hybrids
potentially tolerant to water strees, none in
untolerant hybrids.

Ringkasan
Cekaman kekeringan mempengaruhi
proses fisiologis dan biokimia tanaman kelapa
sawit. Serangkaian percobaan bertujuan untuk
mengkarakterisasi perubahan fisiologis tanaman
kelapa sawit terhadap cekaman kekeringan,
dalam kondisi rumah kaca telah dilakukan.
Percobaan terdiri atas (1) penetapan titik layu
permanen, berdasarkan perubahan potensial air
daun, kadar air daun, kadar air daun relatif, dan
luas daun relatif dengan perlakuan tanpa dan
dengan penyiraman selama 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18
dan 21 hari. Percobaan (2) penetapan perubahan
kadar prolin, glisin-betain, gula-gula osmotikal

dan asam absisik (ABA), terhadap cekaman
kekeringan. Perlakuan adalah tanpa dan dengan
penyiraman selama 0, 7, 14, dan 18 hari.
Percobaan (3) analisis perubahan pola pita protein
daun hibrida H2 (D10DxD8D)x(L9TxL2T); H12
(D8D Self) x (L9T x L2T). H3 dan H9 (BJ028D
x BJ2117P) terhadap cekaman kekeringan dengan
total protein, dan pola pita protein dengan SDS
PAGE dan SDS-PAGE 2D. H2 dan H12 serta H3
dan H9 masing-masing berpotensi toleran dan
peka terhadap cekaman kekeringan. Hasil yang
diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa titik layu
permanen dicapai pada hari ke 18 setelah diberi
cekaman kekeringan. Cekaman kekeringan
menurunkan kadar air tanah media tumbuh,
potensial air daun, kadar air daun, kadar air daun
relatif, dan luas daun relatif untuk kedua klon.
Potensial air daun, kadar air daun dan kadar air
daun relatif klon MK365 menurun lebih cepat
dibandingkan dengan klon MK356. Kadar air
tanah menurun tajam setelah 6 hari diberi
cekaman air dan potensial air daun mencapai
<-2.55 MPa pada 18 hari setelah diberi cekaman.
Cekaman kekeringan nyata berpengaruh terhadap
kadar prolin, glisin betain dan glukosa. Interaksi
antar lama cekaman kekeringan dan perbedaan
klon diperoleh pada perubahan gula stahiosa.
Tampak bahwa semakin menurun nilai potensial
air daun menyebabkan kadar prolin semakin
meningkat. Hal yang sebaliknya terjadi terhadap
kadar glisin-betain yang mengalami penurunan
terutama untuk klon MK356. Kadar ABA
MK356 dan MK365 meningkat sejalan dengan
semakin lama diberi cekaman. Secara umum
tampak bahwa kadar ABA pada MK356 lebih
tinggi dibandingkan dengan MK 365. Perbedaan
respons klon MK356 dengan MK 365 terjadi
pada kadar prolin, gula silosa dan ABA.Hibrida
berpotensi toleran memberikan respon terhadap
cekaman kekeringan dengan menginduksi protein
baru pI 4,7-36 kDa, pI5,3-34 kDa, pI 4,6-32 kDa
dan pI 5,3- 36 kDa, sedangkan pada hibrida
yang berpotensi peka protein tersebut tidak
ditemukan


Keywords


Elaeis guineensis, water stress, proline, glycine-betaine, relative water-content, leaf-water potential, osmotical sugars, abcisic acid, SDS-PAGE protein, electrophoresis 2-D

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v69i2.166

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