Penggunaan biostimulan Orgamin untuk efisiensi pemupukan dan peningkatan produktivitas kelapa sawit di dataran tinggi Application of Orgamin biostimulan to enhance fertilizer efficiency and productivity of oil palm grown in highland

Happy WIDIASTUTI, Djoko SANTOSO, Soekarno Mismana PUTRA, Memed WIRAMIHARDJA, Aida FARIDA, B. MARAHIMIN MARAHIMIN, K. PANJAITAN PANJAITAN, Jisman SINAGA

Abstract


Abstract
The extension of oil palm area has been expanded to
marginal land such as the highland regions. However, the
productivity of the oil palm became the main demand for the
planters. Increasing of oil palm productivity can be done by
application of growth regulators. Growth regulators are
small molecules in a relatively very small amount that affect
the growth and development of plant. This study was
conducted to asses the efectiveness of plant growth regu-
lators (Orgamin and Orgamin plus) in improving fertilizer
efficiency and productivity of mature oil palm (TM 7). The
experiments were conducted at Marjandi oil palm plantation
at an altitude of 700 m above sea level in a total area of
16 ha. Six treatments tested were 1). 100% inorganic
fertilizer (control), 2). 50% inorganic fertilizer + Orgamin
(50K+O), 3). 75% inorganic fertilizer + Orgamin (75K+O),
4). 50% inorganic fertilizer + Orgamin plus (50K+OP), 5).
75% inorganic fertilizer + Orgamin plus (75K+OP), and 6).
100% inorganic fertilizer + Orgamin plus (100K+OP)
arranged in a randomized block design (RBD) with three
replications. Orgamin (O) and Orgamin plus (OP) were
applied in the hole around the oil palm along with inorganic
fertilizers. The results showed that application of O and OP
improved the efficiency of inorganic fertilizers by 50% based
on vegetative variables and increased the concentration of
N, P, and K of leaf and soil compared to those of 100%
inorganic fertilizer. In addition to the height and leaf number
of plant parameters, the leaf of the plant treated with O and
OP showed more greenish compared to those of control.
There is an indication that the O application increased the
percentage of female flowers. In addition the application of
Orgamin also produced the highest oil content in oil palm
fruit particularly in the treatment of 75% of inorganic
fertilizer + orgamin harvested in October compared to those
in March. Moreover, application of OP increased both the
total weight and weight per bunch of FFB.

Abstrak
Pengembangan kelapa sawit mengharuskan pengguna-
an lahan suboptimal seperti daerah dataran tinggi. Produk-
tivitas kelapa sawit menjadi tuntutan utama bagi pekebun.
Peningkatan produktivitas kelapa sawit di dataran tinggi
diduga dapat dilakukan dengan aplikasi zat pengatur tumbuh.
Zat pengatur tumbuh merupakan molekul “kecil” (small 

molecules) yang dalam jumlah relatif sangat sedikit mem-
pengaruhi pertumbuhan/perkembangan tanaman. Penelitian
dilakukan untuk menguji formula zat pengatur tumbuh
(Orgamin dan Orgamin plus) dalam meningkatkan efisiensi
pemupukan dan produktivitas kelapa sawit TM 7. Percobaan
dilakukan di kebun Marjandi dengan ketinggian 700 dpl pada
areal seluas 16 ha. Enam perlakuan yang diuji adalah 1).
pupuk anorganik 100% (100K), 2). pupuk anorganik 50% +
Orgamin (50K+O), 3). pupuk anorganik 75% + Orgamin
(75K+O), 4). pupuk anorganik 50% + Orgamin plus (50K+
OP), 5). pupuk anorganik 75% + Orgamin plus (75K+OP),
dan 6). pupuk anorganik 100% + Orgamin plus (100K+OP)
yang disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok (RAK)
dengan tiga ulangan. Orgamin (O) dan Orgamin plus (OP)
diberikan dalam lubang di piringan pokok bersamaan dengan
pupuk anorganik. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa
pemberian O dan OP dapat meningkatkan efisiensi pemupuk-
an anorganik hingga 50% dilihat dari beberapa peubah
vegetatif dan menghasilkan kadar N, P, dan K daun dan
tanah lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan pemberian pupuk
anorganik 100%. Selain pada parameter tinggi tanaman dan
jumlah daun, peningkatan juga terlihat pada tingkat
kehijauan daun. Terdapat indikasi bahwa pemberian Orgamin
meningkatkan persentase jumlah bunga betina. Pemberian
Orgamin juga menghasilkan kadar minyak tertinggi khusus-
nya pada pemberian Orgamin + pupuk anorganik 75% pada
buah yang dipanen bulan Oktober dibandingkan dengan buah
yang dipanen bulan Maret. Baik data bobot per tandan
maupun bobot TBS menunjukkan bahwa pemberian OP
dapat meningkatkan kedua peubah tersebut.

 


Keywords


Plant hormone, organic fertilizer, plant productivity, soil chemistry

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v81i2.37

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