Daya hidup planlet karet asal in vitro microcutting pada berbagai periode penutupan sungkup plastik dan komposisi media tumbuh Survival rate of in vitro microcutting-derived rubber plantlets on various plastic cover closed periods and medium compositions

. SUMARYONO, Masna Maya SINTA, . NURHAIMI-HARIS

Abstract


Abstract

In vitro culture through microcutting technology can be used for clonal propagation of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) rootstocks. Acclimatization of in vitro plantlets to ex vitro conditions is a major bottleneck in the micropropagation of many plants.This research was conducted to study the effect of plastic cover closed period and media composition on the survival rate of rubber plantlets. Plantlets derived from microcutting were planted on plastic pots containing a mixture of soil, cocopeat, dung manure, and sand or zeolite. The plantlets were then placed inside a closed transparent plastic cover that opened after 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks. The cover was placed under tree canopy. The second experiment used the same media composition with or without cocopeat and with sand or zeolite. At 1.5 month after culture, observation was done on the number of survived plantlets, plantlet height and the percentage of rooted plantlets. The results show that the best coverclosed period was six weeks and the best growing medium was a mixture of soil, cocopeat, dung manure, and zeolite (6:2:1:1v/v). On the two combined treatments, the survival rate was 73.3% after 1.5 month of acclimatization. The use of zeolite and a higher soil percentage gave positive influences on rubber plantlet survival rate. The second experiment results confirmed that the use of zeolite was better than sand and the use of cocopeat was definitely needed. It can be concluded that the best of acclimatization of rubber plantlets from microcutting was on a medium mixture of soil, cocopeat, dung manure, and zeolite (6:2:1:1) and placed inside a closed plastic cover for six weeks before the cover was opened gradually.

 

Abstrak

Kultur in vitro melalui teknologi microcutting dapat digunakan untuk perbanyakan klonal batang bawah tanaman karet (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Aklimatisasi planlet in vitro ke kondisi ex vitro merupakan hambatan utama pada mikropropagasi berbagai jenis tanaman. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mempelajari pengaruh lama penutupan sungkup plastik dan komposisi media tumbuh terhadap daya hidup planlet karet. Planlet karet asal microcutting ditanam pada pot plastik berisi media dengan berbagai campuran tanah, cocopeat, pupuk kandang, dan pasir atau zeolit. Planlet selanjutnya diletakkan di dalam sungkup plastik transparan tertutup rapat yang dibuka setelah 2, 3, 4 dan 6 minggu. Sungkup plastik diletakkan di bawah tajuk pepohonan. Percobaan kedua menggunakan komposisi media serupa dengan atau tanpa cocopeat dan dengan pasir atau zeolit. Pada umur 1,5 bulan, pengamatan dilakukan terhadap jumlah planlet yang hidup, tinggi planlet, dan persentase planlet yang berakar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama penyungkupan terbaik adalah enam minggu dan media tumbuh terbaik adalah campuran tanah, cocopeat, pupuk kandang, dan zeolit (6:2:1:1 v/v). Pada kombinasi kedua perlakuan tersebut, daya hidup planlet karet mencapai 73,3% setelah 1,5 bulan aklimatisasi. Penggunaan zeolit dan persentase tanah yang lebih tinggi berpengaruh positif terhadap daya hidup planlet karet. Hasil percobaan kedua menegaskan bahwa penggunaan zeolit lebih baik daripada pasir dan penggunaan cocopeat mutlak diperlukan. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa aklimatisasi planlet karet asal microcutting terbaik dilakukan pada media campuran tanah, cocopeat, pupuk kandang, zeolit (6:2:1:1) dan diletakkan di dalam sungkup plastik tertutup selama enam minggu sebelum sungkup dibuka secara bertahap.


Keywords


Hevea brasiliensis, in-vitro microcutting, rootstocks, acclimatization, closed cover, cocopeat

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v80i1.46

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