Penggunaan spora cendawan mikoriza arbuskula sebagai inokulum untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan serapan hara bibit kelapa sawit Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore as inoculant to increase growth and nutrient uptake of oil palm seedling

Happy WIDIASTUTI, Nampiah SUKARNO, Latifah Kosim DARUSMAN, Didiek Hadjar GOENADI, Sally SMITH, Edi GUHARDJA

Abstract


Summary
A green house experiment was conducted to
study the effect of spore number and species of
AM fungi as inoculant of oil palm. Two species of
AM fungi was evaluated in this study namely
Acaulospora tuberculata and Gigaspora margarita
and three spore number were tested i. e 200, 350,
and 500 spores. There two fungi have the
potential as AM fungi inoculant for oil palm. The
soil used was acid soil from Cikopomayak, West
Java while the oil palm seedling was from Oil
Palm Research Institute, Medan. A polybag sized
20 x 40 cm was used. Spores as type of inoculant
affect the oil palm growth in longer time. The
best growth of the seedling in term of height,
fresh, and dry weight was obtained by
inoculation at 500 spores of A. tuberculata and
G. margarita. However, at 500 spores per
polybag, growth and N, P, and K uptake of
seedlings inoculated with A. tuberculata and
G. margarita were not significantly different
except for seedling and root fresh weight. Oil
palm seedling inoculated with A. tuberculata at
500 spores per seedling resulted higher root and
seedling fresh weight compared with those
inoculated with G. margarita. The different effect
of seedling on A. tuberculata and G. margarita
inoculation at 200 and 350 spores per seedling
were only observed in plant height, fresh and dry
weight of seedlings. The plant height, fresh, and
dry weight of seedlings inoculated with
A. tuberculata at 200 and 350 spores per seedling
were higher compared with those inoculated
with G. margarita. In addition inoculation with
A. tuberculata at 200 spores per seedling resulted
higher N and K uptake of seedling compared with
those inoculated with G. margarita.

Ringkasan
Suatu penelitian rumah kaca telah dilakukan
untuk mempelajari pengaruh jumlah spora dan
spesies cendawan mikoriza arbuskula (CMA)
sebagai inokulum pada bibit kelapa sawit. Dua
spesies CMA yang diuji ialah Acaulospora
tuberculata dan Gigaspora margarita sedangkan
jumlah spora yang diuji ada tiga tingkat yaitu
200, 350, dan 500 spora. Bibit kelapa sawit
berumur dua bulan ditanam di polibag berukuran
20 x 40 cm yang berisi tanah yang bereaksi
masam berasal dari Cikopomayak. Hasil yang
diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa spora sebaga

nokulum bibit kelapa sawit dapat mempengaruhi
pertumbuhan kelapa sawit namun diperlukan
waktu yang lebih lama untuk mendapatkan
respons inokulasi. Pertumbuhan tertinggi pada
peubah tinggi bibit, bobot basah, dan bobot
kering diperoleh pada inokulasi sebanyak 500
spora per polibag baik untuk A. tuberculata
maupun G. margarita. Namun, pada inokulasi
sebanyak 500 spora per polibag, pertumbuhan
dan serapan N, P, dan K bibit yang diinokulasi
A. tuberculata dan G. margarita tidak berbeda
nyata kecuali pada peubah bobot basah akar dan
bobot basah bibit. Bobot basah akar dan bobot
basah bibit kelapa sawit yang diinokulasi
A. tuberculata sebanyak 500 spora, lebih tinggi
dibandingkan dengan bibit yang diinokulasi
dengan G. margarita pada jumlah spora yang
sama. Pengaruh spesies hanya dapat ditunjukkan
pada inokulasi 200 dan 350 spora khususnya pada
peubah tinggi bibit, bobot basah, dan bobot
kering bibit. Tinggi bibit, bobot basah dan bobot
kering bibit yang diinokulasi A. tuberculata pada
jumlah spora 200 dan 350 per polibag lebih tinggi
dibandingkan dengan yang diinokulasi
G. margarita. Tampak bahwa inokulasi
A. tuberculata dengan 200 spora per polibag
menghasilkan serapan N dan K lebih tinggi
dibandingkan dengan yang diinokulasi
G. margarita pada jumlah spora yang sama.


Keywords


Spore inoculant, Acaulospora tuberculata, Gigaspora margarita, Elaeis guineensis, Jacq

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v73i1.160

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