Emisi gas rumah kaca, cadangan karbon serta strategi adaptasi dan mitigasi pada perkebunan kopi rakyat di Nusa Tenggara Barat (Greenhouse gas emission, carbon stock, adaptation and mitigation strategies at smallholder coffee plantation in West Nusa Tenggara)

Ali PRAMONO, . SADMAKA

Abstract


Global warming and climate change are the world's major environmental, social and economic problems. The agricultural sector can act as an affected victim, greenhouse gas (GHG) contributor, and GHG absorber. Plantations have a very strategic role in the national action plan in GHG mitigation, because it has a great ability to absorb CO2. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the carbon stocks and GHG emissions from plantation management. The objectivesof the study wereto measure GHG emissions,to determine carbon stocks,and to define adaptation and mitigation strategies on climate change in existing coffee plantation systems. Gas samples were taken from 5 sampling points as replications by closedchamber method. Carbon stock estimation was done by destructive technique, including biomass of understorey and non-wood necromass. The results showed that the coffee plantations less than 10 years-oldat the study sites emitted 47 tons CO2-e/ha/year and stored carbon of 91.4 tons C/ha. Climate change adaptation strategies can be done by the application of good agricultural practices (GAP)andthe use of drought-tolerantclones, mulches,shade trees,multiple cropping systems, silt pitsand biophore techniques. The GHG mitigation can be done by the utilization of plantation waste as a source of organic fertilizer, biochar, animal feed, and bioenergy sources through the development of models of integration crop and livestock systems, as well as rejuvenation of plantation crops to increase carbon sinks and stocks.

  [Keywords: climate change, carbon sequestration, coffee plantations]

 

Abstrak

 Pemanasan global dan perubahan iklim menjadi masalah utama lingkungan, sosial dan ekonomi dunia hingga saat ini. Sektor pertanian dapat berperan sebagai korban terdampak, penyumbang Gas Rumah Kaca (GRK), dan penyerapGRK. Tanaman perkebunan mempunyai posisi sangat strategis dalam rencana aksi nasional di sektor pertanian, karena memiliki kemampuan besar dalam menyerap CO2. Oleh karena itu, pengukuran cadangan karbon dan emisi GRK dari pengelolaan perkebunan perlu dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengukur emisi GRK, menentukan cadangan karbon dan menetapkan strategi adaptasi dan mitigasi terhadap perubahan iklim pada sistem perkebunan kopi rakyat eksisting di Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat. Pengambilan contoh gas dilakukan di limatitik sampling dengan metode sungkup tertutup. Penghitungan cadangan karbon di atas permukaan tanah dilakukan dengan cara destruktifyang mencakup juga penetapan cadangan karbon biomassatanaman bawah dan biomassaserasah (ne-kromas non kayu). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perkebunan kopi rakyat yang berumur kurang dari 10 tahun di lokasi penelitianmeng-emisikan karbon sebesar 47 ton CO2-e/ha/tahundan menyimpan cadangankarbon sebesar 91,4ton C/ha. Strategi adaptasi terhadap perubahan iklim dapat dilakukan dengan penerapan praktik Pertanian yang baik/ Good Agricultural Practices(GAP), penggunaan klon tahan kekeringan, penggunaan mulsa organik, pemanfaatanpohon penaungdan sistem tumpang sari, pembuatan rorak dan biopori.Mitigasi GRK dapat dilakukan dengan pemanfaatan limbah tanaman perkebunan sebagai sumber pupukorganik, arang (biochar), pakan ternak, dan sumber bioenergimelalui pengem-bangan model sistem integrasi tanaman dan ternak,serta peremajaan tanaman perkebunan yang sudah menurun produktivitasnya untuk meningkatkan serapan dan cadangankarbon. 

[Kata kunci :perubahan iklim, sekuestrasi karbon, perkebunan kopi]


Keywords


cadangan karbon, emisi gas rumah kaca, perkebunan kopi rakyat

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v86i2.294

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