Waste reduction and nutrient recovery during the co-composting of empty fruit bunches and palm oil mill effluent




Minyak kelapa sawit adalah minyak nabati yang paling banyak dikonsumsi dunia. Setengah dari produksinya berasal dari Indonesia, walaupun perluasannya telah dikritik dari sudut pandang lingkungan. Pengurangan dampak lingkungan perkebunan melalui praktik pengelolaan limbah yang lebih baik sangat penting untuk mencapai produksi yang lebih bersih. Dalam konteks ini, penelitian difokuskan pada pengomposan, praktik yang semakin banyak diterapkan di agroindustri. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menguji pengomposan produk samping pabrik kelapa sawit yaitu tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) dan limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit (LCPKS), pada rasio LCPKS/TKKSdan frekuensi pembalikan yang berbeda. Setelah 60 hari, kompos masih dalam fase mesofilik dan tidak dapat dianggap sebagai kompos matang karena rasio C/N dan suhu yang tinggi. Penurunan bobot dan volume yang tinggi telah dicapai masing-masing sebesar 40% dan 60%, serta penguapan air yang signifikan dari LCPKSdan TKKS(60%). Rasio LCPKSterhadap TKKSpada 1 – 1.5 m3/ton adalah optimal untuk mencapai kelembaban (65-70%), ruang udara bebas (>50%) dan pemulihan nutrisi, juga menunjukkan bahwa dalam kondisi percobaan ini proses pengomposan tidak dapat menggunakan semua LCPKSyang diproduksi oleh pabrik (3m3/ton TKKS). Tingkat pemulihan nutrisi mendekati 100% untuk fosfor, kalium dan magnesium, sedangkan untuk nitrogen terjadikehilangan sekitar 30-35%. Pengomposan dengan platform beton dan beratap, tidak melakukan penyemprotan pada tumpukan secara berlebihan, dan mendaur ulang semua limbah cair merupakan hal penting untuk mencapai efisiensi pemulihan nutrisi yang tinggi dan untuk mengontrol kualitas kompos akhir.

[Kata kunci:pengomposan, tandan kosong, pemulihan nutrisi, kelapa sawit, limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit, keberlanjutan]


Palm oil is the most consumed edible oil in the world. Roughly half of the production originates from Indonesia, where the expansion of the crop has been criticized from an environmental perspective. Reducing the environmental impact of plantations through better waste management practices is critical to achieve cleaner production. In this context, our study was focused on composting, a practice increasingly adopted among agro-industries. Our trial was designed to test co-composting of the main palm oil mill by-products – empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) – under different POME/EFB ratios and turning frequencies. After 60 days the compost was still in a mesophilic phase and could not be considered as mature compost due to high C/N ratio and temperature. High weight and volume reduction were achieved (40% and 60% respectively), as well as significant water evaporation from the POME and EFB (60%). We found that a POME to EFB ratio of 1 to 1.5 m3/ton was optimal for moisture (65-70%), free air space (>50%) and nutrient recovery, showing that in our experimental conditions the composting process could not use all the POME produced by the mill (3m3/ton of EFB). The nutrient recovery rate was close to 100% for phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. For nitrogen we observed 30-35% of losses. Composting on a concrete platform with a roof, not over-spraying the piles and recycling all the leachates are critical points to achieve high nutrient recovery efficiency and to control final compost quality.

[Keywords:composting, empty fruit bunch, nutrient recovery, oil palm, palm oil mill effluent, sustainability]


composting, empty fruit bunch, nutrient recovery, oil palm, palm oil mill effluent, sustainability

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v87i2.338

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