Sintesis dan uji in vitro penghambatan nanokitosan-Cu terhadap pertumbuhan Fusarium oxysporum dan Colletotrichum capsici

Sri WAHYUNI, Muhammad Alfian PRASETYO, Deden Dewantara ERIS, . PRIYONO, . SISWANTO

Abstract


Wilt and anthracnose are diseases on chili that cause substantial losses and even crop failure. Control of the diseases is generally carried out using chemical pesticides which are environmentally harmful. Therefore, the development of nanoparticles, such as nanochitosan-Cu, can be an environmentally friendly solution in controlling chili disease. The current technology in developing nanochitosan-Cu is green synthesis, which uses an effective reducing agent but non-toxic for plants and the environment. However, the process requires sonication, which is difficult to be adapted for scale-up production. This research aimed to synthesize and determine the formulation of nanochitosan –Cuusing magnetic stirrer method without sonication, and also to evaluate the antifungal ability of nanochitosan-Cu againstFusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum capcisi causing wilt and anthracnose disease, respectively. Synthesis of nanochitosan-Cu was carried out at 50°C and 400 rpm of speed. Characterizations of nanochitosan-Cu were analyzed using SEM-EDX and PSA. In vitro antifungal activity test was carried out by food poisoning method.The results showed that the synthesis of nanochitosan-Cu using ionic gelation method can be carried out without sonication process, and produce round shape nanoparticles with 183.7 nm of diameter. The nanochitosan-Cu was effective against F. oxysporum and C. capsici, at a concentration of 100 ppm. It inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum and C. capsici by 100% and 92.38%, respectively.

Layu dan antraknosa merupakan penyakit pada tanaman cabai yang menimbulkan kerugian besar bahkan gagal panen. Pengendalian penyakit tersebut umumnya dilakukan menggunakan pestisida kimia yang tidak ramah lingkungan. Untuk itu perlu dikembangkan biofungisida yang ramah lingkungan, salah satunya adalah nanopartikel kitosan-Cu. Teknologi pengembangan nanopartikel yang saat ini sedang berkembang adalah green synthesis, yaitu menggunakan reduktor yang efektif namun tidak toksik terhadap tanaman dan lingkungan. Proses sintesis ini membutuhkan sonikasi yang cukup sulit untuk diadaptasi pada skala produksi masal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan sintesis nanopartikel kitosan-Cu dengan metode magnetic stirrer tanpa sonikasi, serta mengevaluasi kemampuan antifungi terhadap Fusarium oxysporum dan Colletotrichum capcisi penyebab layu dan antraknosa. Sintesis nanokitosan-Cu dilakukan pada suhu 50°C dengan kecepatan 400 rpm. Karakterisasi nanokitosan-Cu dilakukan menggunakan SEM-EDX dan PSA. Uji aktivitas antifungi secara in vitro dilakukan menggunakan metode peracunan makanan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintesis nanokitosan-Cu dengan metode gelasi ionik dapat dilakukan tanpa proses sonikasi dan menghasilkan nanopartikel berdiameter 183,7 nm dan berbentuk bulat. Nanokitosan-Cu yang dihasilkan efektif sebagai antifungi terhadap F. oxysporum dan C. capsici. Pada konsentrasi 100 ppm, nanokitosan-Cu mampu menghambat pertumbuhan F. oxysporum dan C. capsici masing-masing sebesar 100% dan 92,38%.


Keywords


sonication; green synthesis; antifungal

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v88i1.367

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