Characterization of cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunches by fast delignification process with different solvents


  • Firda Dimawarnita Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute- Bogor Unit
  • Yora Faramitha Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute- Bogor Unit
  • Haryo Tejo Prakoso Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute- Bogor Unit
  • Indah Puspitasari Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute- Bogor Unit
  • Doni Nugroho Kalbuadi Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute- Bogor Unit
  • Dedy Prasetyo University of Lampung



[Keywords: hydrogen peroxide, lignin, sodium hydroxide, FTIR, XRD]


Cellulose extraction typically begins with a delignification reaction using conventional methods, namely alkaline treatment. So far, the delignification process using alkaline treatment requires quite a long time, which is over 6 hours of the cooking process, so the cost to produce cellulose is quite large. The delignification approach using a variety of solvents is needed to answer the current problem, which is to shorten the reaction time. In this study, two types of solvents were carried out for the delignification process of EFB, namely NaOH and H2O2, while the time used for the delignification process was 15 minutes. Parameters of research observations included levels of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose.Extraction of cellulose from EFB using H2O2 and NaOH produced cellulose content of 52.76% and 66.46%, respectively. However, based on visual results of treatment using NaOH are still brown in color which indicates that lignin is still contained in EFB. The Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR)and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization results before and after delignified EFB showed that a peak of 3301.75 cm−1 dominated the functional group that show cellulose, with the highest crystallinity index of 12.43% in the H2O2 treatment. The results of Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA)and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses showed that EFB before and after treatment were different, which can be observed from the loss of lignin structure and TGA values which began to degrade at 351.78°C. Therefore, based on this research the best solvent for fast delignification of EFB was H2O2 (only need 15 min).


Download data is not yet available.



Akinjokun, A. I., Petrik, L. F., Ogunfowokan, A. O., Ajao, J., & Ojumu, T. V. (2021). Isolation and characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose from cocoa pod husk (CPH) biomass wastes. Heliyon, 7(4), 1-7.

Beall, F. C. (1971). Differential calometric analysis of wood and wood components. Wood science and technology, 5(3), 159-175.

Chang, S. H. (2014). An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production. biomass and bioenergy, 62, 174-181.

Ching, Y. C., & Ng, T. S. (2014). Effect of preparation conditions on cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber. BioResources, 9(4), 6373-6385.

Hajaligol, M., Waymack, B., & Kellogg, D. (2001). Low temperature formation of aromatic hydrocarbon from pyrolysis of cellulosic materials. Fuel, 80(12), 1799-1807.

Hattori, K., & Arai, A. (2016). Preparation and hydrolysis of water-stable amorphous cellulose. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 4(3), 1180-1186.

Indonesian National Standard. (2009). SNI 0444-2009: Pulp – Test Method for Alpha, Beta and Gamma Cellulose Content. Jakarta: SNI.

Isroi, A. C., & Panji, T. (2016, October). Bioplastic production from oil palm empty fruit bunch. In International Conference on Biomass (Vol. 2016, pp. 10-11th).

Kim, J. S., Lee, Y. Y., & Kim, T. H. (2016). A review on alkaline pretreatment technology for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource technology, 199, 42-48.

Lamaming, J., Hashim, R., Sulaiman, O., Leh, C. P., Sugimoto, T., & Nordin, N. A. (2015). Cellulose nanocrystals isolated from oil palm trunk. Carbohydrate Polymers, 127, 202-208.

Lani, N. S., Ngadi, N., Johari, A., & Jusoh, M. (2014). Isolation, characterization, and application of nanocellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as nanocomposites. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2014, 13-13.

Lee, H. L., Chen, G. C., & Rowell, R. M. (2004). Thermal properties of wood reacted with a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 91(4), 2465-2481.

Leh, C. P., Rosli, W. W., Zainuddin, Z., & Tanaka, R. (2008). Optimisation of oxygen delignification in production of totally chlorine-free cellulose pulps from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre. Industrial Crops and Products, 28(3), 260-267.

Li, R., Fei, J., Cai, Y., Li, Y., Feng, J., & Yao, J. (2009). Cellulose whiskers extracted from mulberry: A novel biomass production. Carbohydrate polymers, 76(1), 94-99.

Loh, S. K. (2017). The potential of the Malaysian oil palm biomass as a renewable energy source. Energy conversion and management, 141, 285-298.

Mazlita, Y., Lee, H. V., & Hamid, S. B. A. (2016). Preparation of cellulose nanocrystals bio-polymer from agro-industrial wastes: Separation and characterization. Polymers and Polymer Composites, 24(9), 719-728.

Muna, N., Fauzi, A. A. N., Setyaningsih, D., & Yuliani, S. (2019, September). Isolation of microfibrilated cellulose from oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) through peracetic acid delignification and enzyme hydrolysis. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 309, No. 1, p. 012063). IOP Publishing.

Nadiratuzzahra, S., & Tristantini, D. (2020, April). Cellulose acetate from oil palm empty fruit bunches waste as biodegradable microbeads for making scrubs. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2223, No. 1, p. 050001). AIP Publishing LLC.

Ng, L. Y., Wong, T. J., Ng, C. Y., & Amelia, C. K. M. (2021). A review on cellulose nanocrystals production and characterization methods from Elaeis guineensis empty fruit bunches. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 14(9), 103339.

Nikmatin, S., Saepulloh, D. R., & Syafiuddin, A. (2017, May). Mechanical and molecular studies of biocomposites filled with oil palm empty fruit bunches microfibers. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 196, No. 1, p. 012042). IOP Publishing.

Nomanbhay, S. M., Hussain, R., & Palanisamy, K. (2013). Microwave-assisted alkaline pretreatment and microwave assisted enzymatic saccharification of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber for enhanced fermentable sugar yield.

Palamae, S., Palachum, W., Chisti, Y., & Choorit, W. (2014). Retention of hemicellulose during delignification of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber with peracetic acid and alkaline peroxide. biomass and bioenergy, 66, 240-248.

Rafidah, D., Ainun, Z. M. A., Hazwani, H. A., Rushdan, I., Luqman, C. A., Sharmiza, A., & Jalaluddin, H. (2017). Characterisation of Pulp and Paper Manufactured from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches and Kenaf Fibres. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 40(3),449-457.

Razali, N., Hossain, M. S., Taiwo, O. A., Ibrahim, M., Nadzri, N. W. M., Razak, N. & Kassim, M. H. M. (2017). Influence of acid hydrolysis reaction time on the isolation of cellulose nanowhiskers from oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose. BioResources, 12(3), 6773-6788.

Rosli, W. W., Leh, C. P., Zainuddin, Z., & Tanaka, R. (2013). Optimisation of soda pulping variables for preparation of dissolving pulps from oil palm fibre.

Segal, L. G. J. M. A., Creely, J. J., Martin Jr, A. E., & Conrad, C. M. (1959). An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the X-ray diffractometer. Textile research journal, 29(10), 786-794.

Shanmugarajah, B., Kiew, P. L., Chew, I. M. L., Choong, T. S. Y., & Tan, K. W. (2015). Isolation of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB): Preliminary result on FTIR and DLS analysis. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 45, 1705-1710.

Sheltami, R. M., Abdullah, I., Ahmad, I., Dufresne, A., & Kargarzadeh, H. (2012). Extraction of cellulose nanocrystals from mengkuang leaves (Pandanus tectorius). Carbohydrate Polymers, 88(2), 772-779.

Suriani, M. J., Radzi, F. S. M., Ilyas, R. A., Petrů, M., Sapuan, S. M., & Ruzaidi, C. M. (2021). Flammability, tensile, and morphological properties of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber/pet yarn-reinforced epoxy fire retardant hybrid polymer composites. Polymers, 13(8), 1282, 1-18.

Suriyatem, R., Noikang, N., Kankam, T., Jantanasakulwong, K., Leksawasdi, N., Phimolsiripol, Y., & Rachtanapun, P. (2020). Physical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose from palm bunch and bagasse agricultural wastes: Effect of delignification with hydrogen peroxide. Polymers, 12(7), 1-16.







23-10-2023 — Updated on 24-10-2023


How to Cite

Dimawarnita, F., Faramitha, Y., Prakoso, H. T., Puspitasari, I., Kalbuadi, D. N., & Prasetyo, D. (2023). Characterization of cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunches by fast delignification process with different solvents . Menara Perkebunan, 91(2). (Original work published October 23, 2023)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>