Stability of B50 biodiesel added with glycerol ester additive based on palm oil oleic acid


  • Firda Dimawarnita Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute
  • Yora Faramitha Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute
  • Erliza Hambali IPB University



acid value, corrosion rate, physico-chemical properties, viscosity, water content


Biodiesel in Indonesia is a mixture of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) and diesel oil. Mixing FAME and diesel oil is challenging since FAME is separated from diesel oil at low temperatures. Changes in the physico-chemical properties of biodiesel during storage decrease biodiesel quality due to dissolved oxygen, potentially damaging the engine. Using glycerol ester (GE) as an additive can be an alternative solution to tackle that problem. This research examined the stability of GE-added biodiesel. As a comparison, commercial diethyl ether (DEE) additive was used. The concentration of additive added to biodiesel varied at 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm while the storage temperature varied at 12, 25, and 42℃. The stability of biodiesel was evaluated for three months by measuring the acid value, viscosity, corrosion rate, and water content. The acid values ​​​​of the various types and concentrations of additives still meet the SNI 7182-2015 standard (0.5 mg KOH g-1 sample) with a value range of 0.148-  0.392 mg KOH g-1 sample. Kinematic viscosity had a value range of 3.12-3.58 cst, which also meets the SNI 7182-2015 standard (2.3-6 cst). The highest corrosion rate for GE and DEE was in the first week, with values of 0.447 and 0.261 mpy, respectively. Both B50 biodiesel control and the addition of 1000 ppm GE had the same water content value on the 18th day, which was 0.046%, and this value was considered the highest water content. This means adding an additive can maintain the water content in B50 biodiesel. Overall, GE additives in B50 biodiesel with various concentrations comply with SNI 7182-2015 standard.


Download data is not yet available.


Annamalai, M., Dhinesh, B., Nanthagopal, K., SivaramaKrishnan, P., Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, J., Parthasarathy, M., & Annamalai, K. (2016). An assessment on performance, combustion and emission behavior of a diesel engine powered by ceria nanoparticle blended emulsified biofuel. Energy Conversion and Management, 123, 372-380.

Ali, O. M., Mamat, R., Masjuki, H. H., & Abdullah, A. A. (2016). Analysis of blended fuel properties and cycle-to-cycle variation in a diesel engine with a diethyl ether additive. Energy Conversion and Management, 108, 511-519.

Aricetti, J. A., & Tubino, M. (2012). A green and simple visual method for the determination of the acid-number of biodiesel. Fuel, 95, 659-661.

Basha, J. S. (2018). Impact of Carbon Nanotubes and Di-Ethyl Ether as additives with biodiesel emulsion fuels in a diesel engine – An experimental investigation. Journal of the Energy Institute, 91(2), 289-303.

Basha, J. S., & Anand, R. B. (2014). Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using Carbon Nanotubes blended Jatropha Methyl Ester Emulsions. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 53(2), 259-273.

Bouaid, A., Martinez, M., & Aracil, J. (2007). Long storage stability of biodiesel from vegetable and used frying oils. Fuel, 86(16), 2596-2602.

Das, L. M., Bora, D. K., Pradhan, S., Naik, M. K., & Naik, S. N. (2009). Long-term storage stability of biodiesel produced from Karanja oil. Fuel, 88(11), 2315-2318.

de Lira, L. F. B., de Albuquerque, M. S., Pacheco, J. G. A., Fonseca, T. M., Cavalcanti, E. H. d. S., Stragevitch, L., & Pimentel, M. F. (2010). Infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration to monitor stability quality parameters of biodiesel. Microchemical Journal, 96(1), 126-131.

Dean, S. W., Vicentim, M. P., Barreto Sousa, M. V., Fernandes da Silva, V., Mateus, V. L., Rodrigues, J. M., & Smarçaro da Cunha, V. (2010). Water Content Determination in Biodiesel: Optimization of Methodology in Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration. J ASTM International, 7(2), 102615.

El-Araby, R., Amin, A., El Morsi, A. K., El-Ibiari, N. N., & El-Diwani, G. I. (2018). Study on the characteristics of palm oil–biodiesel–diesel fuel blend. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 27(2), 187-194. 03.002

Jain, S., & Sharma, M. P. (2010). Stability of biodiesel and its blends: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Rev, 14(2), 667-678.

Joensen, F., Nielsen, P. E. H., & Palis Sørensen, M. D. (2011). Biomass to green gasoline and power. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 1(2), 85-90.

Khalife, E., Tabatabaei, M., Najafi, B., Mirsalim, S. M., Gharehghani, A., Mohammadi, P., . . . Mohd Salleh, M. A. (2017). A novel emulsion fuel containing aqueous nano cerium oxide additive in diesel–biodiesel blends to improve diesel engines performance and reduce exhaust emissions: Part I – Experimental analysis. Fuel, 207, 741-750.

Lau, C. H., Gan, S., Lau, H. L. N., Lee, L. Y., Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, S., & Ng, H. K. (2022). Insights into the effectiveness of synthetic and natural additives in improving biodiesel oxidation stability. Sustainable Energy Technologies Assessments, 52, 102296.

Leung, D. Y., Koo, B. C., & Guo, Y. (2006). Degradation of biodiesel under different storage conditions. Bioresource Technology, 97(2), 250-256.

Mahmudul, H. M., Hagos, F. Y., Mamat, R., Adam, A. A., Ishak, W. F. W., & Alenezi, R. (2017). Production, characterization and performance of biodiesel as an alternative fuel in diesel engines – A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, 497-509.

Melo-Espinosa, E. A., Piloto-Rodríguez, R., Goyos-Pérez, L., Sierens, R., & Verhelst, S. (2015). Emulsification of animal fats and vegetable oils for their use as a diesel engine fuel: An overview. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 47, 623-633.

Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (2020). Peraturan Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia Nomor 16. Retrieved 3 March 2023 from

Mulyana, D. K. R., Rahmadi A., Wibowo E., Paryanto I., Wibowo C.S., Fajar R. & Reksowardojo I. K. (2014). Report on the study and test on the utilization of biodiesel B20. Jakarta: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources.

Paryanto, I., Prakoso, T., Suyono, E. A., & Gozan, M. (2019). Determination of the upper limit of monoglyceride content in biodiesel for B30 implementation based on the measurement of the precipitate in a Biodiesel–Petrodiesel fuel blend (BXX). Fuel, 258, 116104.

Radhakrishnan, S., Munuswamy, D. B., Devarajan, Y., & Mahalingam, A. (2018). Performance, emission and combustion study on neat biodiesel and water blends fuelled research diesel engine. Heat and Mass Transfer, 55(4), 1229-1237.

Ramakrishnan, G., Krishnan, P., Rathinam, S., R, T., & Devarajan, Y. (2019). Role of nano-additive blended biodiesel on emission characteristics of the research diesel engine. International Journal of Green Energy, 16(6), 435-441.

Reham, S. S., Masjuki, H. H., Kalam, M. A., Shancita, I., Rizwanul Fattah, I. M., & Ruhul, A. M. (2015). Study on stability, fuel properties, engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of biofuel emulsion. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 52, 1566-1579.

Rocha, J. G., dos Santos, M. D., Madeira, F. B., Rocha, S. F., Bauerfeldt, G. F., da Silva, W. L., ... & Tubino, M. (2019). Influence of fatty acid methyl ester composition, acid value, and water content on metallic copper corrosion caused by biodiesel. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 30, 1751-1761.

Sari, V. I., Hambali, E., Suryani, A., & Permadi, P. (2017). Preliminary study of glycerol ester usage as primary and secondary emulsifier on oil based mud formulation. Journal of Advanced Resources, 5(5), 1264-1273.

Sheriff, S. A., Kumar, I. K., Mandhatha, P. S., Jambal, S. S., Sellappan, R., Ashok, B., & Nanthagopal, K. (2020). Emission reduction in CI engine using biofuel reformulation strategies through nano additives for atmospheric air quality improvement. Renewable Energy, 147, 2295-2308.

Vellaiyan, S. (2020). Enhancement in combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a biodiesel-fueled diesel engine by using water emulsion and nanoadditive. Renewable Energy, 145, 2108-2120.

Vellaiyan, S., Subbiah, A., & Chockalingam, P. (2018). Combustion, performance, and emission analysis of diesel engine fueled with water-biodiesel emulsion fuel and nanoadditive. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(33), 33478-33489.

Vellaiyan, S., Subbiah, A., & Chockalingam, P. (2019). Multi-response optimization to improve the performance and emissions level of a diesel engine fueled with ZnO incorporated water emulsified soybean biodiesel/diesel fuel blends. Fuel, 237, 1013-1020.

Yaakob, Z., Narayanan, B. N., & Padikkaparambil, S. (2014). A review on the oxidation stability of biodiesel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 35, 136-153.








How to Cite

Dimawarnita, F., Faramitha, Y., & Hambali, E. (2023). Stability of B50 biodiesel added with glycerol ester additive based on palm oil oleic acid: . Menara Perkebunan, 91(1).

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>