Recent studies of synthetic antibody-based 3-MCPD determination technology




3-MCPD, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), MIP-based SPE, MIP-based sensor


3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic material. 3-MCPD will also become one of the European Union's requirements, proposing the maximum level of the 3-MCPD in palm oil until 2.5 ppm. Although the reported technologies GCMS and HPLC-FLD demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity on 3-MCPD determination, those technologies invest in chemical and time-consuming sample preparation and analysis. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), or a synthetic antibody, can be used to recognize 3-MCPD. MIP is more robust under extreme environments such as temperature and pH. This paper, therefore, aims to discuss the application of MIP on sample extraction and analysis to detect 3-MCPD. MIP is synthesized by polymerization of functional monomers surrounding 3-MCPD as a template. 3-MCPD is then removed from the MIP, leaving active cavities. Thus, these sites can either covalently or non-covalently rebind to 3-MCPD. Computational or empirical studies could investigate the composition of MIP. MIP can be manufactured as MIP-based solid phase extraction (MIPSPE) and MIP-based sensor. Both applications showed significant analytical parameters, such as recovery higher than 90% and detection limit lower than 2.5 ppm.  Therefore, the application of MIP can be flexible for sample preparation and analysis on the 3-MCPD determination. MIP-based technology would be a prospective instrument to detect 3-MCPD.  In the future, producing MIP on an industrial scale will be a challenge to monitor the 3-MCPD level in palm oil.


Download data is not yet available.


Abraham K, KE Appel, E Berger-Preiss, E Apel, S Gerling, H Mielke & A Lampen (2013). Relative oral bioavailability of 3-MCPD from 3-MCPD fatty acid esters in rats. Arch Toxicol 87(4), 649–659.

Andres S, KE Appel & A Lampen (2013). Toxicology , occurrence and risk characterisation of the chloropropanols. Food Chem Toxicol 58, 467–478.

Barocelli E, A Corradi, A Mutti & PG Petronini (2011). 90-day toxicological study of 3-MCPD and its dipalmitate. EFSA (178), 1–131.

Becalski A, S Feng, BPY Lau & T Zhao (2015). A pilot survey of 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol and glycidol fatty acid esters in foods on the Canadian market 2011-2013. J Food Compos Anal 37, 58–66.

Cerbulis J, OW Parks, RH Liu, EG Piotrowski & HM Farrell (1984). Occurrence of diesters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol in the neutral lipid fraction of goats’ milk. J Agric Food Chem 32(3), 474–476.

Cho WS, BS Han, KT Nam, K Park, M Choi, SH Kim & DD Jang (2008). Carcinogenicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxic 46(9), 3172–3177.

Custodio-Mendoza JA, RA Lorenzo, IM Valente, PJ Almeida, MA Lage, JA Rodrigues & AM Carro (2018). Development of a partitioned liquid-liquid extraction- dispersive solid phase extraction procedure followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol diesters in edible oils. J Chroma A 1548, 19–26.

De Smet D, P Dubruel, C Van Peteghem, E Schacht & S De Saeger (2009). Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of fumonisin B analogues in bell pepper, rice and corn flakes. Food Addit Contam 26(6), 874.

EU (2014). Analysis of occurrence of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) in food in Europe in the years 2009-2011 and preliminary exposure assessment. Official Journal of the European Union 57(L271), 93–95.

EU (2018). Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels of glycidyl fatty acid esters in vegetable oils and fats, infant formula, follow-on formula and foods for special medical purposes intended for infants and young children. Official Journal of the European Union 61(L55), 27–29.

Fang M, L Zhou, H Zhang, L Liu & ZY Gong (2019). A molecularly imprinted polymers/carbon dots-grafted paper sensor for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol determination. Food Chem 274, 156–161.

Franke K, U Strijowski, G Fleck & F Pudel (2009). Influence of chemical refining process and oil type on bound 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol contents in palm oil and rapeseed oil. LWT - Food Sci Tech 42(10), 1751–1754.

Hrncirik K & G van Duijn (2011). An initial study on the formation of 3-MCPD esters during oil refining. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 113(3), 374–379.

Hu Z, P Cheng, M Guo, W Zhang & Y Qi (2013). A novel approach of periodate oxidation coupled with HPLC-FLD for the quantitative determination of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol in water and vegetable oil. J Agric Food Chem 61(27), 6614–6621.

IARC (2013). Some chemicals present in industrial and consumer products, food and drinking-water. IARC (Vol. 101).

Jeong J, BS Han, WS Cho, M Choi, CS Ha, BS Lee & CY Kim (2010). Carcinogenicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) administered by drinking water to B6C3F1 mice showed no carcinogenic potential. Arch Toxicol 84(9), 719–729.

Lanovia T, N Andarwulan & P Hariyadi (2014). Validasi modifikasi metode WeIßhaar untuk analisis 3-MCPD ester dalam minyak goreng sawit. Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan 25(2), 200–208.

Leung MKP, BKW Chiu & MHW Lam (2003). Molecular sensing of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol by molecular imprinting. Analytica Chimica Acta 491(1), 15–25.

Li C, SP Nie, Zhou, Y Qiang & MY Xie (2015). Exposure assessment of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol esters from edible oils and fats in China. Food Chem Toxicol 75, 8–13.

Li Y, C Zheng, X Sun, B Ouyang, P Ni & Y Zhang (2014). Identification of 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol using molecularly imprinted composite solid-phase extraction materials. Anal Bioanal Chem 406(25), 6319–6327.

Mane S, S Ponrathnam & N Chavan (2015). Effect of chemical cross-linking on properties of polymer microbeads: A review. Can Chem Trans 3(4), 473.

Matthäus B & F Pudel (2013). Mitigation of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters within the production chain of vegetable oils especially palm oil. Lipid Technol 25(7), 151–155.

Mayes AG &K Mosbach (1996). Molecularly imprinted polymer beads: suspension polymerization using a liquid perfluorocarbon as the dispersing phase. Anal Chem 68(21), 3769.

Mijangos I, F Navarro-Villoslada, A Guerreiro, E Piletska, I Chianella, K Karim & S Piletsky (2006). Influence of initiator and different polymerisation conditions on performance of molecularly imprinted polymers. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 22(3), 381.

Munawar H, A Garcia-Cruz, M Majewska, K Karim, W Kutner & S Piletsky (2020). Electrochemical determination of fumonisin B1 using a chemosensor with a recognition unit comprising molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 321, 128552.

Munawar H, JS Mankar, MD Sharma, A Garcia-Cruz, LAL Fernandes, M Peacock & RJ Krupadam (2020). Highly selective electrochemical nanofilm sensor for detection of carcinogenic PAHs in environmental samples. Talanta 219, 121273.

Razak R, A Kuntom, WL Siew, NA Ibrahim, MR Ramli, R Hussein & K Nesaretnam (2012). Detection and monitoring of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in cooking oils. Food Control 25(1), 355–360.

Retho C & F Blanchard (2005). Determination of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol as its 1,3-dioxolane derivative at the μg/kg level: Application to a wide range of foods. Food Addit Contam 22(12), 1189–1197.

Scholsky KM (1993). Polymerization reactions at high pressure and supercritical conditions. J Supercrit Fluids 6(2), 103–127.

Sun X, L Zhang, H Zhang, H Qian, Y Zhang, L Tang & Z Li (2014). Development and application of 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol electrochemical sensor based on a polyaminothiophenol modified molecularly imprinted film. J Agric Food Chem 62(20), 4552–4557.

Suwastoyo B (2020). Forum seeks to help industries prepare to meet 3-MCPD and GE ceiling levels. Retrieved August 26, 2020, from February 2018%2C the European,forces on January 1%2C 2020.

Van Duuren BL, BM Goldschmidt, C Katz, I Seidman & JS Paul (1974). Carcinogenic activity of alkylating agents. J Natl Cancer Inst 53(3), 695–700.

Wang L, Y Ying, Z Hu, T Wang, X Shen & P Wu (2016). Simultaneous determination of 2- And 3-MCPD esters in infant formula milk powder by solid-phase extraction and GC-MS analysis. J AOAC Internat 99(3), 786–791.

Weisburger EK, BM Ulland, JM Nam, JJ Gart & JH Welsburger (1981). Carcinogenicity tests of certain environmental and industrial chemicals. J Natl Cancer Inst 67(1), 75–88.

Weißhaar R (2008). Determination of total 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in edible oils by cleavage of MCPD esters with sodium methoxide. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110(2), 183–186.

Wong A, MV Foguel, S Khan, FM De Oliveira, CRT Tarley & MDPT Sotomayor (2015). Development of an electrochemical sensor modified with Mwcnt-Cooh and Mip for detection of diuron. Electrochim Acta 182, 122–130.

Xu M, Z Jin, Z Yang, J Rao & B Chen (2020). Optimization and validation of in-situ derivatization and headspace solid-phase microextraction for gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of 3-MCPD esters, 2-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in edible oils via central composite design. Food Chem 307, 125542.

Yaman YT, G Bolat, TB Saygin & S Abaci (2020). Molecularly imprinted label-free sensor platform for impedimetric detection of 3-˗monochloro propane-˗1,2-˗diol. Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical, 128986.

Yu C & K Mosbach (2000). Influence of mobile phase composition and cross-linking density on the enantiomeric recognition properties of molecularly imprinted polymers. J Chromatgr 888(1), 63.

Zelinková Z, B Svejkovská, M Velíšek & M Doležal (2006). Fatty acid esters of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol in edible oils. Food Addit Contam 23(12), 1290–1298.

Zhou H, Q Jin, X Wang & X Xu (2014). Effects of temperature and water content on the formation of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters in palm oil under conditions simulating deep fat frying. Eur Food Res Technol 238(3), 495–501.

Zulkurnain M, O Ming, R Abdul, I Arbi, T Chuan & C Ping (2012). The effects of physical refining on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1 , 2-diol esters in relation to palm oil minor components. Food Chem 135(2), 799–805.








How to Cite

MUNAWAR, H., LUNA, P., KRESNAWATY, I., & WIDIASTUTI, H. (2021). Recent studies of synthetic antibody-based 3-MCPD determination technology. Menara Perkebunan, 89(1).

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 > >>